A Personal Injury Claim is usually a claim that arises out of negligence by a third party against an injured party.
Examples of this are:
a motor accident
an accident at work
a public liability accident (where the accident happens in a public place)
In order to have a personal injury claim you must have an injury and there has to be negligence on behalf of the other party (i.e. the driver of a vehicle, the owner of premises, your employer, etc.)
In certain cases, where a party was a passenger in a vehicle and was injured as a result of a Road Traffic Accident, the situation arises whereby liability is never in dispute and it is always the fault of the driver of the vehicle, or the driver of another vehicle, for causing the accident.